This is an explanation of the high volume low pressure (HVLP) method for making a vacuum chuck.
To connect the vacuum hose to the lathe you will need some kind of coupling. Others have used plastic cups and duct tape to accomplish this. I used some ABS plumbing pipe with appropriate diameter. I use the door over the headstock pulleys to hold the pipe in place.
This photo shows the lathe with a cherry bowl held on the chuck. The inset photo shows the chuck with foam padding.
This photo shows how the vacuum hose is attached to the lathe. This system relies on a hollow lathe mandrel. If your lathe is build differently you will have to adapt accordingly.