Research Information on the Great War
Here is a list of some of the books that Benjamin Keevil has read and the research sources on the web that Benjamin Keevil has visited on the Great War. Because we are mainly interested in the 58th Batallion from Central Ontario at Passchendaele on October 26, 1917, the information is separated into the following categories:
There are thousands of books and articles published on the Great War. If you have other useful research sources that relate directly to the Canadians at Passchendaele, send us an email and we will add the source to the list. It took us about a year, working part time, to find, read, and analyze these research sources. By using the Internet, our research time was cut in half.
Thank you to all the people in Canada, Belgium, France, and the United Kingdom who helped to locate the information.
For a list of other Canadian and WW1 Web sites, see our
Here are some of the books that are directly related to the Canadians at Passchendaele:
Canada in Flanders the official story of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, Volume I, by Sir Max Aitken, M.P., 243 pages, 1916. [Volume I covers the first years of the war, we bought this book for $15.00 CAD in a used book store but have not found volume II... yet]
Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919,
by Colonel G.W.L. Nicholson, Ottawa, 1964.
Slaughter in the Mud The Canadians at Passchendaele 1917,
by Norm Christie, CEF Books, ISBN 1-896979-12-2, $9.95 CAD, 36 pages, 1998.
The Canadians at Passchendaele October to November 1917,
by Norm Christie, CEF Books, ISBN 0-9699039-7-9, $14.95 CAD, 81 pages, 1996.
The Canadians at Ypres April 22 to 26, 1915,
by Norm Christie, CEF Books, Winnipeg Manitoba, ISBN 0-9699039-3-6, $14.95 CAD, 88 pages, 1996.
The Canadian Corps and its part in the war,
by Sir Arthur Currie, 1875-1933, call number 940.91 C79
Ghosts Have Warm Hands,
by Will R. Bird, republished by CEF Books in 1997, ISBN 1-896979-00-9,
originally published by Clark, Irwin & Company, $19.95 CAD, 192 pages, 1968.
[A very alive and fascinating true story by Will Bird from Nova Scotia in the 42nd Battalion, The Black Watch of Canada. He fought at Vimy, Passchendaele, Amiens, Arras, and Cambrai. Will Bird died in 1984.]
Legacy of Valour: The Canadians at Passchendaele,
by Daniel G. Dancocks, published in Edmonton Alberta by Hurtig, ISBN 088830305X, 289 pages, CAN $24.95, 1986.
Surviving Trench Warfare, Technology and the Canadian Corps, 1914-1918,
by Bill Rawling, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0-8020-6002-1 (paper), $ 21.95 CAD, 325 pages, 1992.
When Your Number's Up,
by Desmond Morton, Random House of Canada, ISBN 0-394-22388-8 on back cover (ISBN number inside book is 0-394-22288-1), $19.00 CAD, 354 pages, 1993.
The Road to Passchendaele - The Flanders Offensive of 1917 - A Study in Inevitability
by John Terraine, published by Leo Cooper Ltd., ISBN 085052-299-3, 1977.
BATTLEFRONT: 6th November 1917, The fall of Passchendaele,
by Lt.-Col. C.E.L. Lynne R.F.A.), a study pack that contains copies of19 color and black and white documents such as maps, aerial reconnaissance photographs, Cabinet War Policy Committee (WP3) on 12 June 1917, war diaries, and a Canadian recruiting poster. Most of the original documents can be seen at the Public records Office, Kew, Richmond, TW9 4DU. To order email firstname.lastname@example.org, costs about CAD $29.95 (12.99 British pounds). ISBN 1-873162-42-1, 1999.
In Flanders Fields,
by Leon Wolff, Penguin Books, $13.99 CAD, 363 pages, 1958.
Has anyone read this book?
The Third Ypres, Passchendaele The Day-by-day Account,
by Chris McCarthy, Arms & Armour Press, ISBN 1-85409-217-0 (the ISBN on the back cover is 1-85409-405-X), $750 BF (Belgium Francs), 158 pages, 1995.
[This book, purchased at the Shell Hole in Ypres, contains the maps and description that allowed us to find the exact battlesite of the 58th Battalion on October 26, 1917 as shown on our
Passchendaele The Fight for the Village,
by Nigel Cave, Battleground Europe series, Pen & Sword Books, $25.95 CAD, 144 pages, 1997.
[This book has excellent maps and photos.]
Passchendaele and the Battles of Ypres 1914-18,
by Martin Marix Evans, Osprey a division of Reed Books, $28.95 CAD, 111 pages, 1997. Many photographs and hard-to-get maps are included.
Passchendaele - the untold story,
by Robin Prior and Trevor Wilson, Yale University Press, 237 pages, 1996.
They Called It Passchendaele,
by Lyn Macdonald, Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-016509-6, $13.99 CAD, 261 pages, 1978.
Passchendaele, the story behind the tragic victory of 1917,
by Philip Warner, Sidgwick and Jackson, London, call number 940.431 W13, 1987.
Battle Passchendaele 1917, evidence of war's reality,
by Paul Wombell, Travelling Light, London, call number 940.431 W58, 1981.
Haig's Command A Reassessment,
by Denis Winter, Penguin Books, 362 pages, 1991.
Passchendaele, The Sacrificial Ground by Nigel Steel and Peter Hart, Cassell Military Paperbacks, first published in Great Britain by Cassell 2000, is of extraordinary value with soldiers' frontline accounts of the Third Battle of Ypres.
Canadian Troops Storm PASSCHENDALE RIDGE - 1917
A fantastic 22x16 inch centerfold page trimmed from The Illustrated London News (a leading illustrated British news magazine of the day), DEC 1, 1917. The title is "BY HINDENBURG'S ORDERS, "TO BE HELD AT ALL COSTS": PASSCHENDALE RIDGE STORMED BY CANADIANS", and it features a incredibly detailed illustration depicting a ferocious battle.
SOME DESPERATE GLORY: the Diary of a Young Officer, 1917. by EDWIN CAMPION VAUGHAN, with a foreword by John Terraine, first published by Fredrick Warne (Publishers) Limited, 232 pages, 1981. Also published in 1985 by Macmillan Papermac.
Vaughan was in the 1/8th Battalion of the Royal Warwickshire Regiment or 'Warwicks'. Although Vaughan survived the war, the
diary only covers the period from Jan 4, 1917 to August 28, 1917.
Intensely honest and revealing, the diaries evoke the day to day minutiae of trench warfare: its constant dangers and mind-numbing routine interspersed with lyrical and sometimes comic interludes. Vividly capturing the spirit of the officers and men at the front, the diaries grow in horror and disillusionment as Vaughan's Company is drawn into the carnage of Passchendaele starting on August 16, from which, of his original "happy little band" of 90 men, only 15 survived.
Poor Bloody Murder by Gordon Reid Editor, Oakville, Personal Memoirs of the First War, Mosaic Press, 1980, 3rd Ypres -Passchendaele pages 161 to 173.
Second to None -- The Fighting 58th Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force by Kevin R. Shackleton,
320 pages, 65 illustrations, 1-55002-405-1, $28.99 CAD, paper, September 2002,
Dundurn Press in Canada.
One of only fifty infantry battalions to see action with the Canadian Expeditionary Force during World War I, the 58th nevertheless had no official history. Second to None tells the story of this important, yet forgotten, battalion. The soldiers who formed the 58th exemplified the ideal citizen soldiers and later evolved into the tough, battle-savvy veterans who destroyed the cream of the German Imperial Army and won battle honours. The author uses the men's letters and diaries and family oral histories to amplify the terse account of the 58th's war diary, bringing to life once more the men who paid the price for freedom.
- The C.E.F. Roll of Honour, lists members and former members of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) who died as a result of service in the Great War 1914-1919, compiled and edited by Edward H. Wigney, and published by Eugene G. Ursual.
This book lists every Canadian servicemen who died during WWI. The 880-page book took seven years of research to catalog previously disjointed and unknown information into one substantial text. All 67,000 names are listed alphabetically! This book is a limited quantity printing and is a necessary addition to any library, beautiful hardcover, 67,000 names, full Christian name, rank, serial number, place of burial, honours and awards, cross-referenced alias names, and cause of death (for example, KIA, DOW).
Canadians who died serving with British, Australian, New Zealand, South African and U.S. forces, identification of all North American Indians, POWs, are also included. The book costs $135.00 CAD ($102.00 USD).
Officers of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, by Norm M. Christie, 1988, a 116-page hard-cover book that lists the rank, name and honours, unit, date of death, cemetary or memorial.
Marching to Armageddon, Canadians and the Great War, 1914 -1919, by Desmond Morton and J.L. Granatstein, Lester & Orpen Dennys Limited, Toronto, Canada, 288 pages, 1989.
- Canadian Corps Trench Standing Orders, Army Printing and Stationary Service,
- these orders were in operation at all times and covered conduct from rations and cooking to arrangements in the case of attack.
Does anyone know where to get a copy of these orders? Answer - the book, A Call to Arms, by David Love.
Back to the Front, by Stephen O'Shea, Douglas & McIntyre, ISBN 1-55054-577-9, $16.95 CAD, 205 pages, 1997.
Books of Remembrance, 52-page pamphlet, Vetran Affairs, Government of Canada, 1984.
But This Is Our War, by Grace Morris Craig, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0-8020-2442-4, 148 pages, 1981.
The Canadians on the Somme September to November 1916,
by Norm Christie, CEF Books, ISBN 0-9699039-4-4, $14.95 CAD, 91 pages, 1996.
From the Forks to Flanders Field, by Bruce Tascona (email@example.com), the story of the 27th City of Winnipeg Battalion 1914 to 1919, 128 pages, $25.00 CAD, 1995.
The Human Side,
by U.N.C. Dudley, Toronto, Canadian War Press, 1915.
My Grandfather's War,
by William (Bill) D. Mathieson, ISBN -0-394-22288-1, Macmillan of Canada.
Temoins Silencieux, adaptation française de "Silent Witnesses" par Jacques Gouin, Musee de guerre du Canada, 249 pages, en français, 1974.
Silent Battle, Canadian Prisoners of War in Germany, 1914 to 1919,
by Desmond Morton, ISBN 1-895555-17-5, Lester Publishing Limited, 1993.
by Timothy Findley, Penguin Books Ltd, ISBN 0-1400.50116, $2.25 CAD in 1977, 191 pages, 1977. [A novel by Timothy Findley who was born in Toronto.]
My little wet home in the trenchs,
by Roland D. Lemmon, published in Nova Scotia, probably in 1919.
- prints the unvarnished truth, unlike most cheery letters from the Front.
Worthy Investments, lists the Canadians decorated by the King, 1915 to 1919, edited by Kevin J.P. Joynt, $12.00 CAD, 65 pages.
This alphabetically organized list provides a researcher with an accurate account of when, where, and how many times an individual was decorated at a Royal Investiture. Recipients who do not appear on this roll were either killed in action, or sent home before they could be invested.
Task of Gratitude, Canadian Battlefields of the Great War
- by Stephen Mills, $24.95 CAD.
CANADA'S SONS AND GREAT BRITAIN IN THE WORLD WAR
- by Colonel George G. Nasmith, C.M.G, with an introduction by General Sir Arthur W. Currie, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., Commander of the Canadian Army Corps, published by the John. C. Winston Co., Limited, Toronto, over 600 pages, 1919.
- "A complete and authentic history of the commanding part played by Canada and the British Empire in the World's Greatest War". Illustrated with reproductions from the official photographs of the Canadian and British Governments.
- In 1919, the "Montreal Gazette" said "No better book could be put in the hands of young Canadians", the "Toronto Globe" said "Well illustrated and carefully compiled. Sir Authur Currie's introduction is a fine piece of direct, soldierly narrative", the "Vancouver Daily Sun" said "Colonel Nasmith's access to official documents, photographs and maps guarantees the correctness of the book as a history of the great war".
THE BANTAMS: The Untold Story Of World War One
by Sidney Allinson (firstname.lastname@example.org). Published by Howard Baker, London, England, 1981
Mosaic Press, Oakville, Ont., 1983. 287 pages, illustrations, index.
Tells the little-known history of the 50,000 British and Canadian volunteers
of below the minimum regulation height of 5 ft. 3ins. who volunteered to
fight in "Bantam Battalions" during the First World War.
The Roll of Honour of the ONTARIO TEACHERS WHO SERVED IN THE GREAT WAR 1914/1918
This book lists the teachers who served their country, it lists those that came home as well as those that died in honour of freedom.
Book Art & War (Canadian War Memorials) Published for the Canadian War Records
Office shortly after WW1. HB with 48 color and 8 black and white plates.
Artists featured include Munnings, Jackson, and Barraud. Worth $75 to $100 CAD.
The poppy was officially adopted by the Great War Veterans Association in 1921
on the suggestion of a Mrs. E. Guerin, a French citizen.
A Call to Arms, The Organization and Administration of Canada's Military in World War One, by David W. Lowe, Bunker to Bunker Books, $41 CAD, ISBN 1894255-03-8, 349 pages, 1999.
The People's War Book, James Martin Miller (ed.), published in 1919.
Private Memorials of the Great War on the Western Front by Barrie Thorpe of the Western Front Association. First published in 1999.
King Albert's Book,
produced ca 1915 in London England to benefit the Daily Telegraph Belgium Fund, 17 tipped-in pictures, 10 full-page pictures and music.
Tributes from many people including Claude Monet, Andrew Carnegie, Hon. William H. Taft, Sir Wilfred Laurier, The Right Hon. Sir Robert Borden, The Right Hon. David Lloyd George, and The Right Hon. Winston S. Churchill.
Official History of the Great War,
by Colonel A Fortescue-Duguid.
Above Flanders' Fields,
by Walter M. Pieters, Grub Street, London England, 123 pages, 1998. A complete record of the Belgian fighter pilots and their units during the Great War, 1914-1918.
1915 The Death of Innocence,
by Lyn Macdonald, Headline Book Publishing, ISBN 0-7472-7834-2, purchased used for $5.00 CAD, 625 pages, 1993.
Before Endevours Fade, by Rose E.B. Coombs, MBE, Battle of Britain Prints International, ISBN 0-900913-85-1 (paper), 176 pages (with lots of photos), 1994.
["You haven't talked to THE expert on the Great War until you have talked to Miss Coombs",
she constantly revised and updated this book until her death in 1991.]
Fricourt-Mametz, by Michael Stedman,
Battleground Europe series, Pen & Sword Books, $25.95 CAD, 144 pages, 1997.
World War I, The Western Front,
by Peter Simkins, Bramely Books, 221 pages, almost 400 photographs, $29.00 CAD.
The Story of the CANADIAN CORPS 1914-1934,
published by Canadian Veteran Associates, 146 King Street West, Toronto, Canada, 1934, 87 pages.
Chief Ven.-Archdeacon (Col.) F.G. Scott, C.M.G., D.S.O., Senior Chaplain, First Canadian Division.
Includes a record of the Canadian Corps Re-Union August 4, 5, and 6 1934 and the story of Canada in the Great War as recorded on the walls of the Memorial Chamber in the Peace Tower at Ottawa.
ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT - by Erich Maria Remarque (1898-1970), 1928, translated from the German by A. W. Wheen. The greatest war novel of all time.
Here are the books that Benjamin Keevil needs to borrow or buy to get more background information on the events at Passchendaele on October 26, 1917:
Historical Records of Number 8 Canadian Field Ambulance 1915-1919, by Gunn. In June 2002, Angus Army Surplus, 300 Bath Road, Unit E1, Frontenac Mall, Kingston, Ontario, tel 613.531.4040, owner Sr. D/M Bud Fields had a copy for sale for $60. CAD.
The Guns of August by Barbara W. Tuchman (Preface), Robert K. Massie (Paperback - April 1994).
Apparently according to the book Inside the White House during the Cuban Missle Crisis in 1962, the US President Kennedy used a tactic from The Guns of August book to help understand the missle crisis. In 1962, one tactic was to establish a shipping blockade but one Soviet ship got through the blockade on October 26, 1962.
The Guns of August only covers the first thirty days of the war, until the eve of the Battle of the Marne, but is still a wide ranging book. It covers in great detail the nationalism, diplomatic maneuvering, and military planning which seemed to lead the European continent to war; as well as the military maneuvers and battles of the first thirty days both on land and sea. The author's focus on a limited time period, rather than the entire war, allows her to delve into detail on the war's causes and the key decisions and actions that occurred early in the war. She places great emphasis on, and explores in detail, the personalities and governments she feels were instrumental during the crisis that led to the war and whose actions, during the first weeks of the war, contributed greatly to its future course.
Hints on Reconnaissance for Mines and Land Mines in the Area Evacuated by the Germans, S.S. 163, May, 1917, British publication, 11 pages. This original publication has two original stamps on the front cover, one in purple to the General Staff of the Canadian Corps, May, 1917 and the other in red to the Canadian Corps M.G.O. 11 Oct 1917. This manual discusses such topics as: dug-outs, houses, railways, wells, bathing places, general information on where booby-traps may be encountered and the type of explosives used by the Germans. There are also several high quality diagrams as well as an elevation and sectional elevation drawings of the German Automatic Detonating Device.
Art or Memorial? The Forgotten History of Canada's War Art by Laura Brandon,
168 pages, University of Calgary Press. Laura is the curator of the war museum in Ottawa.
Ordering books using the Internet is fast and easy, we ordered Fricourt-Mametz, by Michael Stedman from Amazon Books in California and it arrived in Toronto by surface mail 10 days later. The cost to buy the book in a Toronto bookstore is $25.95 CAD (but the book is not available and would have to be ordered) and the total cost from Amazon was $29.26 CAD ($20.34 for the book plus $8.92 for shipping).
There are too many publishers to list.
This part lists the primary Canadian organizations with Web sites that have WW1 information available:
Books of Remembrance - lists the names of the Canadians who fought and lost their lives in the Great War.
National Archives of Canada.
Also, you can:
Display a copy of the CEF War Diaries
Search a database for data about the CEF soldiers of the Great War. Over 600,000 Canadians enlisted in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) during the First World War (1914-1918). The CEF database is an index to those personnel files, which are held by the National Archives. To date, over 765,000 images of Attestation papers have been scanned and are being made available online.
Veteran Affairs Canada
- In 2000, Veteran Affairs assisted the government of France with its plans to award the Legion of Honour to all living WW1 veterans who fought on French or Belgium soil. About 630,000 Canadians served in WW1, and more than 66,500 of them died.
Canadian Virtual Museums, including the
Canadian War Museum.
Toronto Reference Library
- the Special Collections department organized an exhibition, Doing Our Bit, Canadians and the Great War, at 789 Yonge Street, Toronto from October 31 to January 17, 1999.
National Archives includes the Public Records Office (PRO)
- the national archive of England, Wales and the United Kingdom. It brings together and preserves the records of central government and the courts of law, and makes them available to all who wish to consult them. The records span an unbroken period from the 11th century to the present day.
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
- a database of the 1.7 million war dead.
German War Graves Commission
- a public service organisation dedicated to the acquisition, maintenance and care of the German War Graves, helping the next of kin, educational work, and the preservation of the memory to the sacrifices of war.
Graham Parker has developed an umbrella (available only in England). It has a large Poppy over the top and is called a "Rembrella," and the proceeds go to help Army, Navy and Air Force Benevolent funds. They are quite tasteful and information on them can be obtained at
The Great War
This website has several links to quite fascinating maps.
The Michelin Guides and Trench Maps - The Michelin company produced a series of illustrated Guides to the Battle-Fields (1914-1918) and they have long been avidly sought after by people interested in the Great War.
They were produced very rapidly after the war ended and it is quite clear that
official records were used by the unnamed authors. The scholarship in them
is impressive and G. H. Smith & Son have produced reprints which are of
superb quality and very reasonably priced. The only addition made to any of
the volumes is a short introduction.
Trench Maps - For many years First World War trench maps have been much sought
after items and, of course, as interest in WW1 has increased, the prices
have gone up. For some time black and white photocopies have been sold, but
these - though useful - have always been disappointing, with some of the
colours resolutely refusing to appear in a useful form. Now G. H. Smith &
Son are producing coloured maps, and offering them for sale at the
unbelievable price of £3 including postage (UK mainland only). Quite a
number are now available and they have been enthusiastically received. No
alterations whatsoever have been made to them and any markings made by the
original owners have been left on. So too have the glossaries and
anything else printed on the reverse.
Memorial Museum Passchendaele 1917
- Pics of the Passchendaele 1917 memorial museum opening in Belgium
Digital Trench Maps - LinesMan is an exciting new software product that
combines a satellite GPS navigation system with a library of over 1,100 trench maps from the Western Front during the Great War. This software allows researchers of the Australian, British, Canadian, New Zealand and South African battles to view the battlefields in 3-D, overlay multiple layers of modern maps, and navigate the battlefields using a hand-held GPS satellite navigation system.
LinesMan is the first commercial software that combines Great War trench maps with a satellite GPS (Global Positioning System) navigation system. Linesman was developed in the UK and costs about $600 CAD (£249).
Linesman combines their digital trench maps with Memory-Map's navigation system for Northern France that allows you to workwith multiple layers of modern 1:25,000 IGN mapping and aerial photography. At the touch of a button, within the IGN France area, the IGN digital terrain model combines with the trench maps to produce stunning 3D battlefield views that can be spun and moved through at will. Linesman has further enhanced the trench maps, by producing unique Relief Shaded Maps that give an entirely new and informative view of the battlefield.
The Linesman product contains many trench maps for Belgium; however, the modern IGN mapping system
does not currently cover Belgium. For a list of Belgium maps, that go right up to Zeebrugge on the Belgian coast, refer to the Belgium Map List
For those who purchase a full software license, Great War Digital also offer the opportunity of renting an integrated GPS/PDA unit for specific battlefield tours, on a weekly rental basis (against suitable deposit). Should you decide to purchase the kit on your return, then 1 weeks rental fee will be refunded. This will give you a chance to become familiar with the device without the full expense of purchase, and illustrate graphically the superb functionality of the system for real.
Great War Digital is a UK based company whose purpose is to conserve historical maps and documents by digital scanning and then making the scans available on DVD. The Directors of Great War Digital Ltd are Guy Smith (Guy.Smith*AT*O2.COM) and Jerry Whitehead, both of whom have been instrumental in the development of LinesMan.
GeoPortail Maps of France - IGN - BRGM 2006
Nominal Roll of Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and Men, 58th Battalion and Reinforcing Draft,
Canadian Expeditionary Force (Issued with Militia Orders, 1915), Embarkation - Port Halifax, Ship SS "Saxonia", Date November 22, 1915, 1st Reinforcing Draft Embarkation - Port Montreal, Ship SS. "Hesperian", Date August 17, 1915.
This 28-page document lists the Regimental Number (45xxxx), Rank, Name, Former Corps, name of Next of Kin, Address of Next of Kin, Country of Birth, Place Taken on Strength, Date Taken on Strength in a ten-inch wide column.
A 5-page sketch history of the 58th Battalion. This sketch history was compiled in the 1920's by
the Army Historical Section--it is helpful in determining where the reinforcements came from to fill the ranks of the 58th in the Great War. The 58th was disbanded in 1920 and its memory is perpetuated as the 1st Bn., The Royal Grenadiers.
A 116-page hard-cover book, "Officers of the Canadian Expeditionary Force", by Norm M. Christie, 1988. This book lists the Rank, Name and Honours, Unit, Date of Death, Cemetary or Memorial.
The serial numbers for the 58th Battalion range from 451001 to 454000 (formerly A51001 to A54000).
On October 26, 1917 the 52nd (attacking Bellevue), 43rd, and 4 CMR Battalions were attacking to the north west of the 58th Battalion (attacking Laamkeek through the flooded Ravebeek river).
Heard about the Cole family in Thessalon, Northern Ontario who served in the 58th Battalion.
According to the book, "Legacy of Valour: The Canadians at Passchendaele", by Daniel G. Dancocks and published in 1986, the Canadian casualities at Passchendaele were:
- From October 26 to October 28, casualities totaled 2,481.
- On October 30, casualities totaled 2,321: 884 killed, 1420 wounded, and 8 taken prisoner.
- On November 6, casualities totaled 2,238 including 734 killed.
- On November 10, casualities totaled 1,094 including 420 killed.
In the future, more research data will be added and analyzed.
Here is part of the Order of Battle, Canadian Army Corps from the book, "Legacy of Valour: The Canadians at Passchendaele", by Daniel G. Dancocks, 1986.
- General Officer Commanding: Lieutenant-General Sir A.W. Currie
Third Canadian Division
- Major-General L.J. Lipsett
Ninth Infantry Brigade
- Brigadier-General F. W. Hill
- 58th (Central Ontario) Battalion
- 43rd Battalion (Cameron Highlanders of Canada)
- 52nd Battalion (New Ontario)
- 116th Battalion (Ontario County)
An infantry battalion was commanded by a Lieutenant-Colonel and each battalion was made up of four companies (about 200 men), commanded by a Major or Captain. Then, a comany was broken into four platoons commanded by a Lieutenant and each platoon into four sections commanded by a sergeant. A battalion consisted of about 1,000 men but after the headquarters staff, ill, and wounded are subtracted about 650 men were on active duty.
If you have other useful research sources that relate directly to the Canadians at Passchendaele, send
an email and we will add the source to the list.