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How to navigate around this site?

This site has two navigation techniques:

The direct links at the top and bottom of each page allow you to quickly jump from page to page (like browsing through a book) or jump to a specific page (like choosing a chapter in a book).

We are experimenting with the format for the drill-down links to the second level pages.


How was this site built?

This site was built from scratch using a SimpleText editor for the HTML codes. By using simple HTML paragraphs, lists, and headings (H1, H2, and H3) the site is easy to update and displays in less than 10 seconds on UNIX, Macintosh, and DOS platforms using almost any browser, including the BlackBerry. The site was built in one weekend in 1995 after reading an article in a Mac magazine on how to code HTML. As you can see, the site has not been updated with additional features since May 1, 1995.

Made with a Mac


What is the design philosophy for this site?

This site follows the simple Web page design concepts proposed by Jakob Nielsen, Cari D. Burstein, and others:

When we have time we will enhance this site by adding more interactive information.

Response Times -- The Three Important Limits

The basic advice regarding response times has been about the same for almost thirty years [Miller 1968; Card et al. 1991]:

Size Limits for Web Pages

The following table, from Jakob Nielsen's column on Web response times, shows the maximum allowable page size in order to achieve desired response times for various connection speeds. The numbers assume 0.5 second latency which is faster than most Web connections these days, so for many realistic purposes, page sizes really need to be even smaller than indicated in the table.

1 second
response time
10 seconds
response time
Modem2 K34 K
ISDN8 K150 K
T-1100 K2 M

The concept of page size is defined as the sum of the file sizes for all the elements that make up a page, including the defining HTML file as well as all embedded objects (for example, image files with GIF and JPG pictures). It is sometimes possible to get away with page designs that have larger page sizes as long as the HTML file is small and is coded to reduce the browser's rendering time.

Note that the 1 second reponse time limit is required for users to feel that they are moving freely through the information space. Staying below the 10 second limit is required for users to keep their attention on the task.

In mid-1997, a study found that the mean size of Web pages was 44 kilobytes. This is more than five times too big for optimal response time for ISDN users, so even when more people get mid-band connections, the Web will be much too slow. Also note that 44 kilobytes is 30 per cent larger than even the most generous size limit for modem users.

Background Colors

The red (ff0000) color of the main headings and yellow background (#FFECDB) color were chosen because research shows that they are easy to read.

Because blue is the default and the defacto standard for links, you should not use blue headings.

For more information on background colors, see the following Background Colors site.


What's Next? Wireless Web and WAP

In the future, this site may be converted to the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) using the Wireless Markup Language (WML). The WML language is just like HTML and you can learn it in a weekend. The WAP standard follows the minimalist design philosophy of this Keevil & Associates site because WAP only allows about 1.5 kilobytes for each cell-phone web page.

For information on how to get started with WML, check out the following:

To read about some usability issues with WAP, refer to the site of Jakob Nielsen.


Legal Statement

In no event shall Keevil & Associates be liable for any damages whatsoever, including special, indirect, consequential of use, or data whether brought in contract or tort, arising out of or connected with any part of this website (including other related websites), or the use, reliance upon or performance of any material contained in of access from the Keevil & Associates web site.


Copyright © 1995 - 2020 by Keevil & Associates. All rights reserved.