Reference MapReference Map: Aboriginal Lands and Treaties in Ontario:
This is a guide to lands covered by the major "Indian Treaties" in Ontario.
Maps by Canada Atlas
Reference Map Aboriginal Lands and Treaties in Ontario.
HUNTING & FISHING
Discussions over Aboriginal fishing regulations. In the summer of 1992,
Ontario and the seven Williams Treaty First Nations began negotiating...
a number of years, Ontario and the federal government have been engaged in discussions over
Aboriginal fishing regulations.
of Natural Resources (the Ministry), and the First Nations for facilitating hunting and fishing by the
Williams Treaty First Nations in a manner consistent with the law and conservation objectives.
UAC-The "Williams Treaties" signed by the Mississauga and Chippewa in 1923
contain a clause whereby the Aboriginal signatories cede...
Did you know? Treaties between Aboriginal People in North America and the British Colonial Government started and ended in Southern Ontario.
Williams Treaty Meetings
Between the 15 of February and August of 1997 the United Anishnaabek Council hosted six meeting to get an idea what the community thought of the current specific land claim offer by the Government. (It is interesting to note in March of 1997 the co-negotiator resigned and in the next month April the other co-negotiator was asked to resign)
The name for the Treaties among the Chippewa and Mississauga Indian
Nations in Southern Ontario in 1923 is The Williams Treaties. The Potawatomi were not and included and the Mississaugas of New Credit were also excluded from the negotiation.
The Williams Treaties are the
last Treaties signed between the Canadian Government and an Indigeneous
groups in Canada.
The first Treaties signed in Canda were in Southern Ontario
they more more charateristic of land surrenders starting with surrenders around Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, from here the movement progresses north until their were surrenders across Southern Ontario and around Lake Huron and Lake Superior.
Sometime between the 1850's and 1923 the Government discovered an area of
land in Southern Ontario was not surrendered, at least not anymore. This
area was referred to as the "gunshot treaty" signatories to the treaty
later stated that Indians would not come within a gunshot of York at Lake Ontario.
The gunshot treaty appeared to have been a blank contract and was to be filled in later.
A highly questionable conduct of the Canadian Government then and now. As
many as three rather large "Land Surrenders" were revoked because they involved
Treaties signed with a blank document. In 1916, after much insistence by the Chippewa and Mississauga the government invested the ownership to land question in Ontario. The 1916 Sinclair report confirmed the Federal government had no title to land, essentially all non-aboriginal were squatters, occupiers, and in 1922 the Williams report furthered this knowledge. So in 1923 a Treaty Commission which included Federal negotiator Angus Williams and Provincial negotiator Robert Sinclair and also Uriah McFadden visited the communities. The result is that the First Treaties betweeen Canda and the First People started and finished in Ontario.
Commissioners visited First Nations to get collect evidence
||September 14, 1923|
||September 17, 1923|
||September 20 & 21, 1923|
||September 24, 1923|
||September 25, 1923|
||September 26, 1923|
||Septeber 27, 1923|
Commissioners visit First Nations to sign a Treaty
||October 31, 1923|
||November 3, 1923|
||November 7, 1923|
||November 15, 1923|
||November 16, 1923|
||November 19, 1923|
||November 21, 1923|
Indians in Canada are given the right to surrender consistent with their ownership of a certain territory. Territory ownership was determined by the Huniting and Fishing Rights the tribe or band used in a area. The Bands in the Williams Treaty had Hunted in Fished in the Southern Ontario for longer than anyone could remember. If a band owns land due to thier Hunting and Fishing Rights, would they surrender thier whole basis for existence, Hunting & Fishing?
On May 12, 1994, the Supreme Court of Canada, in the case of R. v. Howard, 18 O.R. (3d) 384,
held that the seven Williams Treaty First Nations had surrendered their traditional right to fish for food when they signed the Williams Treaty in 1923. This decision meant that the province of Ontario had to resume normal enforcement activities consistent with Ontario and federal law regarding
hunting and fishing carried out off the reserve by members of these seven First Nations communities.
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