H O F T E C
This 20 hour Ground School course consists of 16 hours in a group setting and 4 hours of self-study and a written examination. Candidates achieving a grade of 90% or better on my written examination will be granted a Certificate of Competence. The course is based on Transport Canada's Study and Reference Guide - Pilot Permit - Ultra-light Aeroplane, Doc TP 12804E.
Participants should bring any aviation books and an aeronautical chart, preferably a VTA map they own, to class.
The sections italicized and annotated with a # are meant to be activities for the participants to carry out and complete before, during or after the course.
- The aim of taking a ground school, and of learning to fly, is to have fun.
- In addition, this ground school provides an opportunity to socialize your learning.
- Ultralights are different because they are light, draggy, and work in non-standard environments.
- Information – maintenance, training, operations - is not easy to come by for this group.
1. Publications and suggested reading: Skill - Know where to find information Knowledge - Have absorbed what the books offer Attitude - You never know enough # List the books/magazines you have read. # Why is your favourite book considered good reading by you? # How many flying books does your own or the public library have? # Get a copy of the T/C Recreational Pilot Study and Reference Guide TP 12467E. # What are your responsibilities as an operator toward the general public? # What is your profile of a good instructor?
EAA's Experimenter; EAA Ultralight Info Manual; T/C Flight Training Manual; From the Ground Up; AWARE – Aviation Weather; Flying – Golden Books; Weather – Golden Books; Magazines; VFR Supplement; T/C literature; Stick and Rudder; Flying Ultralights; Challenger Web Site; Challenger Owners' Manual; COPA Flight; COPA Annual; etc. etc. etc.
2. Aeronautical Information Skill - networking individuals in organizations Knowledge - Have absorbed what the books offer Attitude - Communicate # To what organizations do you belong? # With how many pilots do you discuss your flying? # What are the fixed annual costs of various licences, publications, memberships?
Flying Clubs; COPA, EAA; RAA; Owners' Associations; FSS; NOTAMS; Other Owners; Mechanics; Insurance people;
3. The Airplane Skill - evaluate the machine Knowledge - – know where the skeletons are Attitude - There is a reason this airplane shouldn't fly. # Watch a long-time pilot prepare his airplane. # Observe a mechanic do work on an airplane. Could you do what he does? # What are the known weaknesses of your airplane? # Where are the reliable shops for engines, instruments, structure etc.? Do you have contact names? # The pre-flight - an exercise of "Threat Analysis". What threats can you perceive before a flight?
Components - nomenclature; Materials used - steel vs. aluminum - corrosion; Approved hardware; Standards; Drilling holes; Fatigue and Flutter; Paper Work; Maintenance; Inspections; Ground Handling; Storage - wind, sunshine, rain, pollutants, inhibition; Log Book entries
4. Theory of Flight Skill - Thinking of the airplane first Knowledge - what keeps it in the air? Attitude - Inviolable rules # Make a rule no pilot should ever break while airborne. # Close your eyes and visualize controlling your airplane under various circumstances. # Explain to a 10 year old why airplanes fly.
Airplane; Sensitivity of Lift to Speed; Controls- which controls what? – interrelationship of all 4; Turns - particularly sharp turns; The importance of the Rudder Control; Drag and its variations; Wing Loading the dangers of low values; Proportion of Drag to Weight; the energy equation; Weight and Balance; Optimum airspeeds; Formation flying;
5. Engines & Propellers Skill - recognizing the symptoms Knowledge - the relationships Attitude - let it be part of you # What does a good engine/propeller combination sound like? # What engine performance degradation are you willing to accept for a flight? # Where are you going to learn to troubleshoot engine problems?
2 Stroke engines - design advantages; Power/Displacement ratio vs. a Lycoming's; Role of stale fuel, Fuel drains, mixtures, storage, vapor pressure; Instrumentation - CHT, EGT, RPM; Breaking-in statistics; Inspection items, leaks; Propeller repair (wood) and balancing; Torquing and safetying of hardware; Refueling precautions - static electricity;
6. Navigation Skill - translating map into reality Knowledge - know your way around efficiently Attitude - you can't get lost # Could you navigate your planned trip without a map? # For how far does your feeling of being "nearby" extend? # What do you consider the most important navigational tool to be, other than the GPS?
Map symbols and map reading technique; Control zones; Computations - time distance speed; Time, direction, lat. & long. measurements; Effect of wind - drift, g/s, return trip time; Triangle of velocities; Sample XC exercise; Radio - GPS; Different "Norths";
7. Meteorology Skill - recognize the signs Knowledge - know the interrelationships Attitude - strive for the big picture # List information a cloud can reveal? Discuss your answer with an experienced pilot. # Guess at the weather within 300 miles of you in 4 directions. Check it out with a call to the FSS. # On what basis can you decide on whether conditions ahead will deteriorate or get better? # Why is it important to 'tap' the altimeter during the pre-flight check?
Role of clouds in forecasts; Role of upper winds in forecasts Cloud types and flying characteristics; Low level phenomena - shear, turbulence, valley effects, rollers, thermals, cloud streets, diurnal, ceilings; Forecasting techniques - pressure tendency, wind direction, drift, cloud types, stability; The TV Weather Channel;
8. Air Regulations Skill - know why they make sense Knowledge - – know them Attitude - they will save your bacon # What air regulation do you consider most important? # Which regulations do not apply to you? # What are the differences in privileges between UL, AULA, Amateur Built and Certified aircraft?
Origin; Authorities and Responsibilities; Legalities of ownership and licences; Record keeping; Inspections; Airframe modifications;
9. Licences Skill - obtain and retain them Knowledge - maintain proficiency Attitude - they are a privilege # Recite the obligations attached to having the licence. # Under what circumstance would you consider your licence to be invalid? # Adopt the Aimens' Model Code of Conduct
Privileges; Medicals; Fees ; Code of Conduct (AMCC)
10. Ownership Skill - juggling your life Knowledge - know the responsibilities Attitude - you are totally responsible # Prepare a list of questions to ask owners. # Identify the friends who will help you own your airplane. # What ownership skills do you not have?
Costs – fixed and operational; Storage; Options - time sharing; Liability
11. Rules of the Air Skill - Applying them all the time Knowledge - know them Attitude - People smarter than you established them # Visualize your actions under varying traffic and airspace circumstances # Write some rules for airplanes flying out of your airport or area.
Minimum Altitudes; Rights of Way; Circuits; Radio; Neighbours; Collision avoidance;
12. Canadian Airspace Skill - learn to fly in it Knowledge - know the limits Attitude - Everyone else is using it as they are supposed to # Explain to a 10 year old of what the Canadian Airspace structure consists. # Practice your radio procedures. # Form a good mental picture of the airspace structure in your area.
Classes of Airspace; By what rules are the other aircraft operating in your airspace?; Radar coverage;
13. VFR Flight and Flight Planning Skill - planning for an efficient flight Knowledge - know what decisions have to be made before Attitude - always play "what if" # What are your personal lower limits? List them. # After you've planned a flight, give it to an experienced pilot and find out what he would have done differently. # Who, other than your wife/husband, knows your flying habits? - "Buddy" system; # List the "threats" existing for a planned flight.
Weather minima; Dangers of poor visibility; Sample Flight Plan; Flight Itinerary; Your personal minima; Equipment; Alternatives; Airspace considerations; Planning for efficiency;
14. Aviation Safety, Airmanship, Decisions Skill - know the factors involved Knowledge - know yourself Attitude - the sky doesn't tolerate mistakes # Recount a bad decision you've made. Try working it backwards and see how far back you can go in the chain of events leading to a poor circumstance. # How does a pilot with a long safety record operate differently from you? # What makes a person safe?
Currency; Complacency - experience, confidence, recency of exposure, mood, relaxation; Illusions of movement - drift; Sense of urgency; Fear; Planning ahead - "what if?"; Vertigo; Vision; Eye and ear protection; Colds; Cameras, spectators, competition, peer pressure; Float Operations; Ski Operations; Land Operations; CRM; Failure Effect Mode Analysis (FEMA)
15. Pre-Solo Exam Skill - have flown the training hours Knowledge - understood at least the points discussed in class Attitude - you are now ready to learn
The Pre-solo is administered to students who have completed the required dual hours, have taken the ground school, and have studied the material.
The following questions are offered as a self-test in preparation for the 50 question written exam.
# How many hours do you think you should have before going solo? # What must you absolutely know before going solo? # What do you consider a passing mark on any flying exam? # What is the first thing you check if an engine quits? The second? # How far down the runway are you when you have reached half your take-off speed? # Where does an airplane appear in relation to the horizon if it is at your height? # How much height does an airplane (Challenger) lose with power off in a 180 degree turn?
REVIEW - THE HIGH POINTS
Airspeed Control - Limits; Effect of Airspeed on Available Lift; Effect of speed on range; Effect of Gusts on landing; Controlling wing drops at different airspeeds; Controlling sink rates at different airspeeds; Effect of wind on fuel range; Checking and predicting future weather; Manoeuvring - turns at low altitude; Factors affecting Stall speed;
Have you had fun yet?