Frequently Asked Questions


1.  What is GaM?

2.  What is a dialog player?

3.  What sets GaM apart?

4.  Why four drives?

5.  How is the personality defined?  

6. Can a unique graphic expression be assigned to each category?

7.  What is interpretation?

8.  Who were the real George and Mary?

9.  What comes next?


1. What is George and Mary?

George and Mary J (GaMJ) is a dialog player Java applet. The artificial personalities of GaMJ are based on a hypothetical model of drives; the heightened state of an active drive decays exponentially to a steady state. The drives also get an increment with every line from the opposite personality, so that the state of the active drive is affected by the speed of the prompts for sentences. The total number of drives in each personality is four; this is to reflect the possibility of having four types of responses to one arbitrary stimulus. The reasoning goes back to Boolean logic as is explained later in this FAQ.  

2. What is a Dialog Player?

For some, a dialog player means the scrolling text display placed in front of a TV announcer. Here, it means a software application playing meaningful sentences in text and/or in multimedia, these sentences are chosen from repertoires according to certain rules.

A chatterbot is such an application, although strictly speaking it is a Monolog Player, since the user writes in a sentence and the chatterbot answers with a matching response. The matching rules and categories do not change with the passing of time and the variety of categories within the repertoires is without bounds.

The artificial personalities of George and Mary pick the matching line in a dynamic fashion; the passing of time between responses changes the internal states and the target category can change with time. Furthermore, the count of categories is not boundless; it is limited by the pre-defined psychological states within the four drives.

3. What sets GaM apart?

The artificial personalities of GaMJ emphasize motivation (the drives) rather than cognition (the topics), although both exist. GaMJ is not based on ALICE technology and is not designed to be a candidate for the Turing test. GaMJís behavior is more predictable than a typical chatterbot; designed for commercial viability. The basic unit of meaning is the sentence, not the word nor the phoneme.  

4. Why four drives?

According to Boolean logic, a yes-or-no question has four logical answers: Yes, No, I donít know, and I donít care. Likewise, a driven live organism subjected to an arbitrary stimulus may have four types of responses: positive, negative, relevant but indeterminate and irrelevant. And the artificial personalities of George and Mary are made of four drives: the Emotion, Feeding, SocioSexual and Parenting drives. Each drive is an axis with positive magnitudes, divided into discreet categories such as +1, +2 and zero. The total count of categories is a matter of psychological interpretation, in this version of GaMJ it is five for the Emotion, four for Feeding and SocioSexual and three for Parenting, so that GaMJ has 16 categories each.

5. How is the personality defined?

The model of behavior is based on animal priming process, defined as when the presence of an initial stimulus increases the likelihood of a stronger response to subsequent stimuli. The personalities of George and Mary's are defined by their respective repertoires as a static reference, and by their priming dynamic parameters. The priming parameters are two types: Trigger size, Time constant and Quiescent constant for each of the drives. For simplicity's sake, Trigger is constant irrespective of the drive and size and content of the stimulus sentence. In this sense, the personality is defined in motivation rather than cognition. The personality acts as if it always hears what it wants to hear and responds in a constant positive way. The time constants are first order lags; a measure of how fast is the decay of a drive state down to a quiescent value, which is set at zero. The trigger size is given in category jumps, in positive or negative increments of 1/32. Time constants are given in how many seconds to decay down to 0.4 of an initial extreme value.

6. Can a unique graphic expression be assigned to each category?

It would be fortuitous if each category of the drives could be expressed with a unique facial expression, but this is not possible: Behavior is not the sole product of motivation. Motivation, or the drives, define some internal context. There are other internal and external contributing factors to behavior, which may be even stronger than motivation.

7. What is Interpretation?

Interpretation is the process of defining the motivational roots of sentences or behaviors. Here, it is the process of classifying a sentence down to one or more categories in the four drives. The drives are motivational dimensions of internal context. Each context is defined by a focus, the focus of the Emotion is the personality's own existence. Feeding focuses on turf and resources, Sociosex on mates and society, and Parenting on offspring and the environment beyond the immediate senses. Each drive can be internalized or externalized, for example fear internalizes while aggression externalizes threats. Humor's four basic types are also subjected to the internalized/externalized divide, so that George externalizes while Mary internalizes in the context of humor.

8. Who were the real  George and Mary?

George Boole was an Irish mathematician who lived in the nineteenth century; he invented Boolean algebra, the foundation of modern computing. Boolean logic is the reasoning behind his algebra, in his book The Laws of Thought he suggested a psychological model of reasoning based on his logic. GaMJ uses the Boolean model to justify the limitation of the drives to four.  

The characters of GaMJ were inspired by the story of George Booleís untimely death in 1864 while he was in the care of his wife Mary Everest. George walked home after a busy day teaching at Cork College, Ireland when it started to rain. It was a long walk so George caught a cold and stayed at home. Mary believed in curing ailments using their own causes, so if George got sick from getting wet then water would cure him. Mary treated George's illness by drenching him with buckets of water, or so the story goes, he soon died of ... guess what!  

9. What comes next?

GaMJ Started out as a demonstration to show the difference between motivation and cognition. The emphasis on motivation led to the present structure, where cognition has little or no role to play in GaMJís behavior. What comes next is George and Mary C (GaMC or simply GaM), a dialog player with aging simulation and editing tools with drag-and-drop convenience. GaMC will embody techniques such as fuzzy logic and linking to third party software, other features include selectable repertoires, resizable displays and configurable graphics. Please send a form in order to receive email notification of availability.