**Exploring Numerical
Data (E.N.D.)** is a
software resource
for instructors and students in a university/college level social sciences introductory statistics
course; it consists of text material, review questions, and calculation utilities.

**Text Material**.
The text sections are focused expositions of the substantive content of the topics.
Instructors, and printed matter such a standard text,
may convey a fuller treatment of some topics; E.N.D. is intended to supplement
these presentations without getting in their way. That said, most of my
students use E.N.D. as their main resource; instructors who have
developed their own package of hand-out materials will find
E.N.D.
an excellent and economical accessory. The presentation of topics in E.N.D.
is couched in orthodox language and notation and is therefore compatible
with virtually any text and fits well into typical introductory statistics
courses. My personal bias is to emphasize the conceptual
aspects of statistics rather than devote excessive time to
mechanical calculations.

**
Review Questions**.
Review exercises enable students to test their mastery of concepts and computation routines. The
review questions are styled in a multiple-choice (seven alternatives) format and require, in
turn, understanding of relevant concepts, computational skills from
partially developed data, and understanding of the rules for decision making in
science. The review exercises are accompanied by computational solutions
and/or text feedback for incorrect alternatives. The current version of
E.N.D (2.2) contains 365 review exercises which constitute a resource for thorough preparation for tests and
examinations. My own students regard the review questions as most valuable.

**
Calculation
Utilities**. Many
of the topic units contain a calculation utility. The utilities can serve as convenient tools for homework assignments but
their principle value as instructional devices is to act as vehicles by which
instructors may demonstrate, and students may explore, various descriptive and
analytic procedures. Functions are provided to enable the creation and storage of permanent data files.

**TABLE OF CONTENTS OF E.N.D. 3.0
**

Introducing E.N.D.- 13 pages/screens

Preface

Using E.N.D.

Screen Settings

Hard Drive Installation

Example Review Question

Handling Data

Acknowledgements

Copyright & Limitations

Bug List & Feedback

Unit 1: Learning the Language- 57 pages/screens

Terms and Definitions

Review Questions I

Types of Measurement

Review Questions II

Summation Notation

Review Questions III

Key Terms Summary

Unit 2: Organizing Data- 43 pages/screens

Frequency Distributions

Exact Limits

Stem & Leaf Displays

Graphs

Review Questions

Key Terms Summary

Frequency Distribution Calculation Utility

Stem & Leaf Calculation Utility

Histogram / Frequency Polygon Calculation Utility

Unit 3: Describing Data- 62 pages/screens

Averages

Review Questions I

Variation

Z-Scores

Review Questions II

Key Terms Summary

Descriptive Statistics Calculation Utility

Unit 4: Normal Distribution- 43 pages/screens

Normal Distribution

Review Questions

Key Terms Summary

Normal Distribution Calculation Utility

Unit 5: Probability- 41 pages/screens

Probability

This or That

This and That

Review Questions

Key Terms Summary

Unit 6: Statistical Distributions- 43 pages/screens

Random Samples

Sampling Distributions

t Distributions

Review Questions

Key Terms Summary

Unit 7: Confidence Intervals- 30 pages/screens

Confidence Intervals

Review Questions

Key Terms Summary

Confidence Interval Calculation Utility

Unit 8: Hypothesis Testing- 45 pages/screens

Hypotheses in Science

Type I and Type II Error

Power

Review Questions

Key Terms Summary

Unit 9: One Sample t-Test- 39 pages/screens

One Sample t-Test

Underlying Assumptions

Confidence Interval Approach

Review Questions

Key Terms Summary

One Sample t-Test Calculation Utility

Unit 10: Two Sample t-Tests- 67 pages/screens

Independent Samples t-Test

Related Samples t-Test

Underlying Assumptions

Confidence Interval for the Difference Between Means

Confidence Interval for the Mean Difference

Review Questions

Key Terms Summary

Independent Samples t-Test Calculation Utility

Related Samples t-Test Calculation Utility

Unit 11: Analysis of Variance- 39 pages/screens

F Distributions

One Factor ANOVA

Underlying Assumptions

Après ANOVA (multiple comparisons and strength of effect)

Review Questions

Key Terms Summary

One Factor ANOVA Calculation Utility

Unit 12: Correlation- 54 pages/screens

Describing Correlation

Calculation / Interpretation

Variance Interpretation

Concluding Remarks

Review Questions

Key Terms Summary

Correlation Calculation and Plotting Utility

Unit 13: Linear Regression- 24 pages/screens

Predicting Y from X

Confidence Intervals about Predicted Y

Review Questions

Key Terms Summary

Regression Calculation and Plotting Utility

Unit 14: Chi-Square Tests- 51 pages/screens

Goodness of Fit Test

Review Questions I

Test of Independence

Review Questions II

Key Terms Summary

Goodness of Fit Calculation Utility

Test of Independence Calculation Utility

Data Files Management- 4 pages/screens

Data Files Directory

Single Variable Files

Paired Variables Files

Endex- 11 pages/screensOne of the new aspects of version 3.0 is called "Endex". It is a master glossary of 200+ terms/concepts and a navigating index providing mouse-click access to relevant discussions in the E.N.D. units. Students struggling to learn the terminology and concepts will find Endex most useful.

**Exploring Numerical
Data **is
written in ToolBook II (Asymetrix Corp.) and is available on a CD;
the CD is self-contained and runs on computers using the Windows 95 and
later operating systems (sorry, there is no MacIntosh version).

This is a partial screen capture of the opening page of Unit 9: One-Sample t-Test.

This is a partial
screen capture of the calculation utility in Unit 9.

This is a partial
screen capture of a review exercise in Unit 9.

In my thirty plus years as a statistics
instructor I devoted much time and effort trying to make this subject
comprehendible and non-threatening to students. These efforts included a
text (now out of print); **E.N.D.**
is another attempt at this goal.

A few words and images
cannot adequately describe **Exploring Numerical Data**;
there is nothing like it currently available. Earlier versions of
**Exploring
Numerical Data **were
distributed by ITP Nelson
(Canada) Publishers and was available bundled with
several texts or stand alone. If you would like to obtain a copy
please contact your ITP Nelson
sales representative, or me at horvatht@sympatico.ca .

**T. Horvath Ph.D.
Windsor, ON Canada**

REVISED 2003 FEB 28