ARIZ-2011a
(fragment, draft)

### Y. B. Karasik, Thoughts Guiding Systems Corp., Ottawa, Canada. e-mail:karasik@sympatico.ca

During 1973-74 school year at AzOIIT, Altshuller gave us an assignment: solve by ARIZ-71v the following problem:

The old copy machines consisted of a sheet of glass and a light under it. The copied document was first transferred to a tracing paper which then was put on the glass and slid along it. (In the contemporary copy machines it is the other way around: light moves under the glass and the copied document just lies on the glass.) The friction between glass and the tracing paper caused them to polarize. As a result tracing paper often stuck to the glass. Propose a minimal improvement that would eliminated paper sticking to the glass.

We were given handouts with "Analytical" part of ARIZ-71v which consisted of the following steps:

Step 2.3 Describe the problem in plain language in two phrases. (Do not use terminology and do not indicate what needs to be invented, discovered, or created.) The two phrases have to be these:

1. a) A system is given, consisting of elements: <list elements here>.
2. b) Element <name it here> causes an unwanted phenomenon <describe the phenomenon here> when <describe here the conditions under which the element causes the unwanted phenomenon>.
• Note: if the system consists of groups of similar elements (e.g. 20 pipes with 20 shutters), only one element from each group (e.g. just one pipe and one shutter) has to be listed in phrase a).

Step 2.4 Copy elements from 2.3 a) into the following table:

• Notes:
1. artificial elements should be related to 2.4 a) whereas natural elements should be related to 2.4 b)
2. Tools almost always (unless it is explicitly prohibited in the problem) should be related to 2.4 a) whereas products should be related to 2.4 b).

Step 2.5 From 2.4 a) select such an element, which is easiest to alter, modify, or adjust.

• Notes:
1. If all elements in 2.4 a) are equally easy to change/alter/modify/adjust then select that element first, which does not move.
2. If 2.4 a) has an element directly involved into the unwanted phenomenon, select it last.
3. If all elements of the system fell into 2.4 b) category, then select external medium.

Step 3.1 Formulate the Ideal Final Result (IFR) according to the following pattern:
<element selected at step 2.5> BY ITSELF does <what?, when? and under what conditions? Describe it here>

Step 3.2 Make two drawings: one depicting what was before IFR and another one depicting the IFR.

Step 3.3 In the latter drawing find element selected at 2.5 and highlight that part (or portion) of it, which cannot BY ITSELF perform the required action under the required conditions. Write down the name of this part/portion or its description if does not have a name.

Step 3.4 Answer the following questions:

1. a) What do we want of the highlighted portion (or part) ?
2. b) What hinders it to accomplish the required action by itself ?
3. c) What is the contradiction between a) and b) ? (formulate the answer in the form of physical contradiction).
1. d) Can the contradiction be resolved by separating the contradictory properties in time ? (i.e. can the highlighted portion/part alternately have one property or the other ?).
2. e) Can the contradiction be resolved by separating the contradictory properties in space ? (i.e. is it possible to replace the highlighted portion/part by two objects one of which has one property and the other one the other property ?).
3. f) Is it possible to eliminate the contradiction by changing the aggregate state of the matter of the highlighted portion/part ?

Step 3.5 Under what conditions the highlighted portion would be able to perform the required action by itself ? (what properties should it have for this to happen ?)

Step 3.6 What should be done so that the highlighted portion would acquire these properties ?

Step 3.7 Outline a practical way of doing 3.6.

Step 3.8 Draw the scheme of a device that implements this way.

Here is how I executed the steps:

Step 2.3

1. A system is given, consisting of a sheet of glass, light and tracing paper.
2. Tracing paper sticks to the sheet of glass while sliding on it.

Step 2.4 a) Elements, which can be altered, modified, adjusted (under the problem's conditions) none light, glass, tracing paper

Step 2.5 External medium.

Step 3.1 IFR: external medium BY ITSELF prevents tracing paper from sticking to glass when sliding on it.

Step 3.3 The portion of the external medium that is situated between the sheet of glass and the lying on it tracing paper cannot by itself prevent paper from sticking to glass.

Step 3.4

1. we want the external medium between the glass and the tracing paper by itself to prevent the paper from sticking to the glass.
2. it cannot by itself eliminate the opposite charges accumulating on the glass and on the paper respectively due to their rubbing against each other when the paper slides on the glass.
3. The external medium between the glass and the paper has to be conductive so that to remove charges and has to be not conductive because it is just air.

No solution had been seen from here but I continued (not by ARIZ though). I imagined the external medium between glass and paper as a layer of a material and analysed the situation anew. Paper did not touch glass anymore. Thus, there was no rubbing between them. Paper rubbed just the layer of external medium. But if they are made homogeneous then no charges would accumulate and no sticking take place. It was a solution: make external medium of the same material as tracing paper. Put clean tracing paper on the glass and slide tracing paper with an image on it. That was the answer which Altshuller wanted us to find. Unfortunately, ARIZ-71v alone was not enough for this.

How could the afore mentioned informal thinking be formalized and incorporated into ARIZ ? First, additional steps are required before formulating a contradiction. These steps have to find the root causes of the unwanted effect. In our case they are these:

1. I) paper and glass touch each other;
2. II) paper and glass move relative each other;
3. III) paper and glass are heterogeneous materials;
Only presence of all three causes makes paper and glass to polarize and stick to each other. Thus negation of any of them would solve the problem.

Such a negation may come at a cost or seem to be impossible at all. In this case a contradiction has to be formulated and resolved.

Thus, we arrive at a completely new ARIZ-2011a:

Step 2.3 Describe the problem in plain language in two phrases. (Do not use terminology and do not indicate what needs to be invented, discovered, or created.) The two phrases have to be these:

1. A system is given, consisting of elements: <list elements here>.
2. Element <name it here> causes an unwanted phenomenon <describe the phenomenon here> when <describe here the conditions under which the element causes the unwanted phenomenon>.
• Note: if the system consists of groups of similar elements (e.g. 20 pipes with 20 shutters), only one element from each group (e.g. just one pipe and one shutter) has to be listed in phrase a).

Step 2.4 Copy elements from 2.3 a) into the following table:

• Notes:
1. artificial elements should be related to 2.4 a) whereas natural elements should be related to 2.4 b)
2. Tools almost always (unless it is explicitly prohibited in the problem) should be related to 2.4 a) whereas products should be related to 2.4 b).

Step 2.5 From 2.4 a) select such an element, which is easiest to alter, modify, or adjust.

• Notes:
1. If all elements in 2.4 a) are equally easy to change/alter/modify/adjust then select that element first, which does not move.
2. If 2.4 a) has an element directly involved into the unwanted phenomenon, select it last.
3. If all elements of the system fell into 2.4 b) category, then select external medium.

Step 2.6 Find the list of root causes of the unwanted phenomenon (for example, with the help of "The Root Cause Finder").

Step 2.7 Check to see if negation of a root cause can be easily implemented without creating new unwanted consequences. If so, the problem is solved, otherwise proceed to step 2.8.

Step 2.9 Place root causes found on step 2.6 into the following table:

Step 3.1 If there are root causes in the first row of the table of step 2.9, select one which is easiest to negate. Otherwise proceed to step 3.4.

Step 3.2 Formulate physical contradiction: <something that constitutes the essense of the selected root cause> has to take place because <explain why> and has to not take place in order to solve the problem.

Step 3.3 Proceed to step 3.9.

Step 3.4 Select a root cause from the second row of the table on step 2.9.

Step 3.5 Formulate the Ideal Final Result (IFR) according to the following pattern:
<element selected at step 2.5> BY ITSELF does the following: <describe the negation of the selected root cause>

Step 3.6 Make two drawings: one depicting what was before IFR and another one depicting IFR.

Step 3.7 In the latter drawing find element selected at 2.5 and highlight that part (or portion) of it, which cannot perform the required action under the required conditions. Write down the name of this part/portion or its description if does not have a name.

Step 3.8 Answer the following questions:

1. a) What do we want of the highlighted portion (or part) ?
2. b) What hinders it to accomplish the required action by itself ?
3. c) What is the contradiction between a) and b) ?