Amendments to standards 5.1.1 and 5.1.3

Alex Acosta
Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

As is known, Standard 5.1.1 lists the round about ways of introduction of a substance into a system when it is either explicitly forbidden in the statement of a problem or incompatible with the work of the system. I propose to expand the list by adding the following substandard:

Substandard The additive is introduced in a form of an organic substance (bacteria, algae, fungi, enzymes, antibodies, etc.) that could actively interact with its environment or on another specific substance.


A method to synthetize gold (and other metals such as iron or silver) nanoparticles characterized by the use of different organisms (i.e. Bacillus licheniformis, Shewanella algae, etc.) to synthetize gold nanoparticles from a dissolution of AuCl4- at room temperature. The biologic synthetized nanoparticles have much better properties such as enhanced stability, better control over the size, shape, and monodispersity of the nanoparticles at less cost and without harmful side effects when compared with the chemical process [1] [2].

[1] Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Deepak, Venkataraman; Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi (1 November 2009). "Biological synthesis of gold nanocubes from Bacillus licheniformis". Bioresource Technology 100 (21): 5356–5358.

[2] Takashi Ogi; Norizoh Saitoh; Toshiyuki Nomura; Yasuhiro Konishi. “Room-temperature synthesis of gold nanoparticles and nanoplates using Shewanella algae cell extract”. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. September 2010, Volume 12, Issue 7, pp 2531-2539

A method for removing uranium from waste water characterised by the use of ecologically sustainable and self-regulating colonies of organisms such as algae, fungi and/or bacteria [3].

[3] Margarete Kalin; W.N. Wheeler; G. Meinrath. “The removal of uranium from mining waste water using algal/microbial biomass“. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 78 (2005): 151–177.

WO 2010145905 A1 Method for preventing and controlling biofouling on marine objects: A method for preventing and controlling the formation of biofouling on an object that is immersed or partially immersed in a water environment in which there is one or more organic or inorganic compounds capable of releasing gas, comprising the step of applying to the surface of the object a composition comprising a polymeric resin and one or more enzymes or a paint or a coating and one or more enzymes, wherein the one or more enzymes are adapted to catalyze a reaction of the one or more compounds that leads to the formation of gas [4].

[4] Lucio Panizza; Paola Frisenda; Alessandra Stefan; Marco Francese; Alessandra Madeo; Elena Martelli; Alejandro Hochkoeppler. “Enzyme-Containing Paints Inhibit the Growth of Marine Microorganisms”. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 8 (2014): 151-156.

WO 2014087011 A1 Preventing adhesion of bacteria: The present invention concerns a detergent composition comprising one or more anionic surfactants; an enzyme selected from the group consisting of: a protease, a lipase, a cutinase, an amylase, a carbohydrase, a cellulase, a pectinase, a mannanase, an arabinase, a galactanase, a xylanase, and an oxidase; and a deoxyribonuclease (DNase).

Enzymes application to pictorial conservation and restoration: Characterized by the use of enzymes to act on specific targets and without harming the rest of the object’s substances (see

As is also known, Standard 5.1.3 suggests that an additive introduced to a system has to either disappear after its function is done, or become indistinguishable from the substances that already were present in the system or in the external medium before the additive was added. I propose to codify the following way to make the additive to disappear as a substandard

Substandard Introduce a substance that could be easily decomposed through the action of microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, fungi, etc. after its function is performed.


A method for hydrogen production characterized by the use of bacteria into wastewater (dark fermentation). The sludge and water remaining after dark fermentation contain high amounts of carbon and nitrogen, and act as natural fertilizers for the giant bamboo [5].

[5] The Economist and InnoCentive announce a winner in Reverse Climate Change Challenge (see

A method for labelling glass and its posterior removing for recycling: characterized by the use of an organic adhesive (i.e. casein) mixed with bacteria or enzymes (i.e. trypsin). The enzymes could be controlled by field (i.e. changing temperature) or by other substance (i.e. inhibitors, microbubbles, etc.)

EP 2298363 A1 Novel non-toxic biodegradable biological adhesive for use in abdominal surgery: The present invention concerns use of a non-toxic formulation of a biological adhesive comprising dextrin, at least one adhesiveness modifier agent, and at least one antibiotic for the manufacture of a medicament for promoting healing of tissue in a body cavity of a patient.

WO 2014116717 A1 Sealants having controlled degradation: The invention provides sealants wherein biodegradable hydrogels that do not otherwise comprise protein-reactive groups for binding to membranes or tissue are provided said groups optionally through a linker. The linker may be biodegradable and may be biodegradable by an elimination reaction. The invention also provides multilayer gels for drug delivery wherein a porous gel in contact with a tissue or organ to which the drug is to be delivered is protected by a microporous layer from the surrounding bodily fluid.

WO 2014127278 A2 Site specific drug delivery wraps, systems and methods of use thereof: This invention is directed to systems for the treatment of vasculature stenosis having an interior (adventitial) and exterior side (interstitial), wherein the interior and exterior sides are biodegradable and the interior side has an adhesive flexible, biodegradable matrix material and an antiproliferative agent, wherein the anti-proliferative agent is released from the matrix substantially following a unidirectional flow pattern towards the perivascular region, exerting biological activity on the vascular smooth muscle cells of the vascular wall and the size of the system can be customized for adhering to a vascular site of interest.

Biodegradable Polymers/Bacteria in Controlled Drug Delivery [6][7].

US 20140236082 A1 Biocompatible Carrier Containing A Bioadhesive Material: A biocompatible carrier for delivery of a therapeutic substance or an active agent is disclosed. The carrier contains a bioadhesive material allowing for increased residence time of the active agent at the treatment site.