# On separation in a parameter

### Y. B. Karasik, Thought Guiding Systems Inc., Ottawa, Canada. e-mail: karasik@sympatico.ca

Recently I received the following letter:

Septemer 12, 2001.

Dear Mr. Karasik:

I am a student in France and I am making an internship at Philips, where I am working on the application of TRIZ to electronical problems. I read your article from the TRIZ-journal about history of contradictions, and I just have a question: Speaking with some experts, I expressed two separation principles:
 Separation in frequency (or in wavelength): frequency modulation for radio emission; use of several light colors for several messages in an optic fibber.; Separation in phase: modulation in phase and amplitude for data transmission (e.g. 16QAM: Quadratic modulation...)

These principles could have been used to solve a physical contradiction like: we want to send a lot of data (e.g. to have good image quality), but we want to send few data (to send a lot of channels at the same time).

QUESTION: Can I say that these 2 principles are new, and not contained in space or time separation? For me time separation is only when I do something sometimes and an other thing at an other moment. This is absolutely not what is done in frequency modulation.

Best Regards,

Olivier Gratzer.

Here is my answer to Mr. Gratzer:

Septemer 12, 2001.

Dear Mr. Gratzer:

 There is a general separation principle called "separation in a parameter", which describes all separations you mentioned. If the parameter is time, then we have separation in time. If the parameter is space, then we have separation in space. If the parameter is frequency (as is often the case in telecommunication), then we have separation in frequency. There are many other parameters that can be used for separation. However, not all separations can be done in a parameter. There are other types of separations (for example, separation between parts and the whole), which are not separations in a parameter. I found a general mathematical formula for all types of separations [1,2,3]. Its simplistic version looks as follows: ``` A anti-A \ / \ / \ / A <--------> anti-A ========> \/ /\ / \ / \ / \ B anti-B ``` which means that contradiction A<------->anti-A is resolved by separating the contradictory requirements between some opposites (dualities): B satisfies the requirement anti-A but anti-B satisfies the requirement A.

Sincerely,

Y. Karasik.

### R E F E R E N C E S:

1. Y. B. Karasik, "Etudes about dualities", "Technology & Science" magazine, No. 3, 1980, pp. 27-28 (in Russian).

2. Y. B. Karasik, "The logic of inventors' thinking", Proceedings of the 11th European Meeting on Cybernetics and System Research, Vienna, Austria, 1992, pp. 591--598.

3. Y. B. Karasik, "Inventiveness as belief revision and a heuristic rule of inventive design", Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems (IEA/AIE-2000), New Orleans, LA, USA, 2000 (Springer Verlag Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1821, pp. 328--333.)