- Laban, Juana de, ed. Institute of Court Dances of the Renaissance
and Baroque Periods. New York: Committee on Research in Dance, 1972.
- Langston, Ann Lizbeth (SCA pseud. Lizbeth Ravensholm).
Larsen, Matt (SCA pseud. Geoffrey Matthias).
- "Italian Gagliarda Dance Movement in Four Dances From Cesare
Negri's Le Gratie D'amore (1602)." Master's Thesis (University of
Abstract: This thesis focuses on the Late-Renaissance Italian gagliarda
dance type as a component of a dance suite within the context of choreographic
descriptions in Cesare Negri's Le Gratie d'Amore
(1602). Definitive materials for reconstruction of two dances, "Bassa
Gioiosa" and "Laura Gentile," are derived from full execution in
a studio situation. Preparatory materials for reconstruction are presented drawn
from the detailed analytical study of two other dances, "La Fedelta'
d'Amore" and "La Galleria d'Amore."
Negri provides rules for proper performance of step-units used
in the duple-meter and triple-meter sections of dance suites.
To better understand the step-units performed in the dances, Negri's
descriptions of the component step-units were interpreted in Labanotation
and word notes. Thus, each detailed interpretation of a step-
unit is offered here as one possible and very specific suggestion
for use in interpretation of the choreographic descriptions in
Le Gratie d'Amore.
According to Negri, two step-units are considered the basis of
all cinque-passi variations, the cinque-passi in gagliarda and
the cinque-battute di campanella. Though several other dancing
masters describe the cinque-passi, Negri is the only master to
describe the campanella as a separate and important step-unit.
Examination of variations whithin choreographic descriptions reveals
that most are mixtures of the two basic types, the cinque- passi
and the campanella, rather than elaborations of one or the other.
Three of the four dances analyzed ("Bassa Gioiosa,"
"La Fedelta' d'Amore" and "La Galleria d'Amore")
contain cinque-passi step-units and variations on the basic cinque-passi,
while in the fourth ("Laura Gentile,") seguiti ordinarii
replace the cinque-passi step-units. The cinq-pas documented in
Orchesographie, by Thoinot
Arbeau, is the most similar step-unit to Negri's cinque- passi.
The basic cinque-passi step-unit from the two manuals of Fabritio
Caroso, Il Ballarino and
Nobilta' di Dame,
is different from that of Negri and Arbeau, for his description
specifies a more complex set of movements with fewer aerial steps.
Descriptions of cinque-passi step-units in the works of the less
well-known masters, Prosper Luti di Sulmona
and Lodovico Iacobilli, are similar to those of Caroso.
Lizbeth Langston: For a dance reconstructor, this thesis is most
useful for the interpretations of step-units given in Labanotation
and word-notes. I have notated all Negri's basic gagliarda step-units
and most of the other step-units given in his Rules, but not the
various gagliarda variations he enumerates in the second treatise.
The dance reconstructions are less useful. I have corrected errors
and changed my thinking on all the dances I reconstructed. I have
changed the figures radically. I have also reinterpreted the proper
performance of the gagliarda variations. I still stand by the
translations, but the dance scores contain some errors, and the
figures are all incorrect. Therefore, since my interpretations
of these dances "sono mal fatto," I do not recommend
- ""I Will Give You Joy", A Basse Dance From Arbeau."
The Letter of Dance, no. 11 (1991): 1-6.
Justin du Coeur: A reconstruction of Arbeau's
best-known basse dance, with some speculations on what the reprise
should look like. Music in issue 12.
- "Period Dance Sources: An Annotated Bibliography, Part I."
The Letter of Dance, no. 1 (1989).
Justin du Coeur: The first part of a complete annotated bibiliography
of known period dance sources. ("Period" refers to the
SCA's period, running up to approximately 1650.) This installment
covers 15th century French and Burgundian sources.
- "Period Dance Sources: Part II." The Letter of Dance,
no. 2 (1989).
Justin du Coeur: Part two of the Period Source Bibliography. Covers
16th century English and German sources.
- "Primary Dance Sources: Part III." The Letter of Dance,
no. 3 (1989).
Justin du Coeur: A continuation of the period dance source bibliography.
Covers 15th century English and 16th century French sources.
- "Primary Dance Sources: Part IV." The Letter of Dance,
no. 4 (1990).
Justin du Coeur: The fourth section of the period dance source
bibliography. Covers 15th century Italian sources.
- "Primary Dance Sources: Part V." The Letter of Dance,
no. 5 (1990).
Justin du Coeur: The final part of the period dance source bibliography.
Covers 15th century Spanish and German sources, and 16th century
Italian and Spanish sources.
- "Primary Dance Sources: An Annotated Bibliography."
The Letter of Dance (1990).
Justin du Coeur: As the title implies, a bibliography of every
textual dance source known to the author, for the period 1400-1651.
Collects the bibliography serialized in Issues 1-5 of The Letter
of Dance. Available as a pamphlet from The Letter of Dance. Largely
subsumed into the electronic bibliography.
- "A Translation of "S'ensuyvent Plusieurs Basse Dances
Tant Communes Que Incommunes" By Jacques Moderne."
The Letter of Dance, no. 10 (1991): 4-8.
Justin du Coeur: As the title says -- a translation of the introduction
to this source. No choreographies
- "Mutanze: A Series of Articles on Galliard Variations; Part 1."
The Letter of Dance, no. 11 (1991): 6-9.
Justin du Coeur: An introduction to the series and the notations
it uses, and the first installment: an examination of the fioretto,
as used by Caroso and
- "Mutanze: A Series of Articles on Galliard Variations; Part 2."
The Letter of Dance, no. 12 (1992): 11-12.
Justin du Coeur: A reconstruction of the campanella step, as described
by Caroso and Negri.
- "Mutanze: A Series of Articles on Galliard Variations; Part 3."
The Letter of Dance, no. 13 (1992): 3-6.
Justin du Coeur: Reconstructs the "hopped fioretto"
and the "gettando la gamba", a couple of un-named variations
- "Mutanze: A Series of Articles
on Galliard Variations; Part 4." The Letter of Dance,
no. 13 (1992): 6-7.
Justin du Coeur: Discusses some "meta-issues", such
as which foot to start on, and how to choose variations on the
- "Mutanze: A Series of Articles on Galliard Variations; Part 5."
The Letter of Dance, no. 14 (1992): 10-12.
Justin du Coeur: Describes the sottopiede, as described by
Caroso and Negri.
- "Mutanze: A Series of Articles on Galliard Variations; Part 6."
The Letter of Dance, no. 16 (1993): 29-31.
Justin du Coeur: Describes the Groppo, and a full-length variation
sequence from Caroso.
- Lauze, Francois de.
- Apologie De La Danse. Translated
by Joan Wildeblood. 1623; reprint, London: Frederick Muller Ltd,
See entry of original for comments.
- Apologie De La Danse. 1623; reprint, Geneva: Minkoff, 1977.
and others describe (de Lauze actually refers the reader to Arbeau
in one instance), but de Lauze's descriptions are so detailed
and involved that it is difficult to understand what he is trying
to get across. Thus, while this is a valuable work, it is very
difficult to make definitive interpretations of the descriptions.
One cannot help but feel, however, that careful reading of the
manual and much work would yield some very valuable insights.
In short, this manual offers a lot of promise, but ought not to
be tackled unless one is willing to exert a great deal of effort.
Matt Larsen: This manual describes in great detail a number of
the dances popular in the early seventeenth century, including
the courante, several different bransles, the galliard, as well
as a few words on the gavotte. One interesting feature is that
the work is composed of two separate manuals, one for gentlemen,
and the other for ladies. To the best of my knowledge, this is
the first dance manual which indicates that the man is doing steps
(other than the bow) which are significantly different from those
which the woman is doing. The manual is dedicated to George Villiers,
then Marquis of Buckingham. The descriptions are probably meant
to discuss the same movements which
- Lawrence W. J. "Notes on a
Collection of Masque Music." Music and Letters 3 (1922): 49.
- Lecin, Marla (SCA pseud. Jessa d'Avondale).
"Hearts Ease: Some Reconstruction Notes." The Letter
of Dance, no. 15 (1992): 1-4.
Justin du Coeur: A discussion of how Hearts Ease is usually done,
and whether this is quite as Playford
- Leitner, Quirin von, ed. Freydal des Kaisers Maximilian I. Turniere
und Mummereien Herausgegeben.... Vienna: 1800- 1882.
John Forrest: A species of reproduction of the FREYDAL CODEX,
a series of engravings of masqueraders, musicians and dancers
commissioned by Maximillian I HRE. There are about 120 images
in all, half of which are of dance and masquerade.
- Lesure, Francois. "Dances Et Chansons a Danser Au Debut
Du XVIe Siecle." Recuil De Travaux Offerts a M. Clovis Brunel II: 176-184.
plusiers basses dances, tant communes que ..." See entry of original
Includes brief study of "
- Little, Meredith. "Recent Research
in European Dance 1400- 1800." Early Music 14 (1986): 4.
- Little, Meredith and Carol G. Marsh. La Danse Noble : An
Inventory of Dances and Sources. Williamstown, MA: Broude Brothers, 1992.
xix, 173 p. : ill., facsims., music ; 30 cm
- Lupi da Carravagio, Livio. Libro Di Gagliarda, Tordiglione, Passo
E Mezzo, Cannarii E Passeggi... Palermo: G.B. Maringo, 1607; reprint, UMI,.
Matt Larsen: This is a lengthy volume (about 300 pages) discussing,
as the title suggests, galliards, tordions, passo e mezzo and
cannaries. It opens with a short disscussion of steps and choreographies
for two dances. The majority of the volume, however, is devoted
to describing hundreds of short sequences of galliards, tordions,
etc. These are apparently intended for use when one needed to
"invent" a galliard or other variation. The reader would
memorize and practice several passages from each section, so as
to have them ready at need. It is difficult to imagine anyone
memorizing all of the literally hundreds of variations offered
here, but it is clear that no one would have been considered an
accomplished dancer without knowing a few (or better yet, being
able to invent them as needed). All in all, an interesting volume,
but not as generally useful as either of Caroso's
works or Negri's book.
- Luti de Sulmona, Propero. Opera Bellissima Nella Quale Si
Contegono Multe Partite, Et Passeggidi Gagliarda ... Perugia: 1589.
Matt Larsen: This work is similar to that of Lupi, but much shorter.
The discussion of steps is a single page, speaking mostly about
caprioles, and only some thirty-two variations are presented.
Only galliard variations are discussed.