In the parable or story of The Good Samaritan, Luke 10:30-37, we must begin at verse 25 to pick up the threads of the story.
Luke 10:25-28 - And behold a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted him, (Jesus), saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? (26) He (Jesus) said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou? (27) And he (the lawyer) answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself. (28) And he (Jesus) said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and thou shalt live - See - The Great Commandments.
The Great Commandments is the basis of The Good Samaritan, let us continue.
Luke 10:29 - But he, (the lawyer), willing to justify himself said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbour?
So the lawyer tempted Jesus by asking him how could he inherit eternal life, and then after he answred his own question correctly, Jesus told him to do this and he would live. Then the lawyer tries to justify himself by asking Jesus, who is my neighbour?
Now begins the story of The Good Samaritan and the answer Jesus gives the lawyer to his last question --- who is my neighbour?
Luke 10:30-32 - And Jesus answering said, A certain [man] went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among theives, which stripped him of is raiment, and wounded [him,] and and departed, leaving [him] half dead. (31) And by chance there came down a certain priest that way: and when he (the priest) saw him, (the wounded man), he passed by on the other side. (32) And likewise a Levite, when he was at the place, and came and looked [on him,] (the wounded man), and passed by on the other side.
"priest" #2409 - a priest, one who offers sacrifieces and in general in busied with sacred rites, also from #2413 - AV - holy; - sacred, consecrated to the deity, pertaining to God - and therefroe devoutly revered.
"Levite" #3019 - one of the tribe of Levi, but in a narrower sense those were called Levites who, not being of the family of Aaron, for whom alone the priesthood was reserved, served as assistants to the priests. It was their duty to keep the sacred utensils and the temple clean, to provide the sacred loaves, to open and shut the gates of the temple, to sing the sacred hymns in the temple, and to do many other things.
So we have a priest, one who devotes his life to serving God - hence serving God's children - you and me; and we have a Levite, who is a tribe of Israel, but they also in a sense serve the people - they were assistants to the priests.
So both of these people, the priest and the Levite, who have devoted their lives to serving God's children, saw the wounded man, but passed by on the other side and did not go to help him. Now what was the second great commandment again? Go back and read it if you do not remember.
Luke 10:33-35 - But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he (the wounded man) was: and when he saw him, he had compassion [on him,] (34) And he went to [him,] and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. (35) And on the morrow when he departed, he took out two pence, (or, money) and gave [them] to the host, and said unto him, Take care of him; and whatsoever thou spendest more, when I come again, I will repay thee.
So the Samaritan found the wounded man on his journey or travels, tended to his wounds helped him on to his beast, (a horse, mule, donkey, camel - unknown what type of of animal), took him to an inn and took care of him. Before he left to continue on his journey, he gave some money to the person of the inn and asked him to continue looking after the wounded man, and if it took more money than what he had given to person of the inn, then he would repay him when he came back.
Luke 10:36-37 - Which now of these three, thinkest thou, was neighbour unto him that fell among the theives? (37) And he (the lawyer) said, He that showed mercy on him. Then said Jesus unto him, Go, and do thou likewise.
So of the 3 people above, the priest, the Levite and the Samaritan, the lawyer decided that the one who was a neighbour was the one who showed compassion or mercy on the wounded man was the one who was following the law of: Love thy neighbour as thy self - See The Great Commandments.