Machiavelli Scenario

Cavour and Garibaldi: 1859-1870

This scenario recreates the Unification of Italy and the era of intrigue in the Italian peninsula that surrounded it. After the failure of the Mazzini revolutionaries in the 1820s, 1830s and 1840s to unite Italy under a nationalist government, and the collapse of the Neo-Guelf movement, an attempt to resurrect the power of the medieval Papacy, in the Revolutions of 1848, Italy was ready for a new type of leadership, unification by force, and under one ruler.

Count Camillo di Cavour of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia led his small state to dominance of Italy in less than two years, raising his monarch, Victor Emmanuel II, to the throne of a united Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

Piedmont-Sardinia's chief rival during this period was the Hapsburg Austrian Empire, under Emperor Franz Joseph. While Austria was constantly beset with internal disorders throughout the 19th century, it remained a Great Power until its final collapse in 1918. Austria dominated northern Italy, with family ties to the ruling houses of Venetia and the Duchies of Lombardy, Modena, and Parma.

The Second French Empire under Emperor Napoleon III was a Great Power foe of Austria, and willing to support Cavour's pretensions to Italian leadership. France also held Corsica, birthplace of Louis Napoleon's famous uncle.

To the south the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, ruled by King Ferdinand II, was decadent and corrupt. In this stagnation, The Two Sicilies was matched by its cross-Adriatic rival, the Ottoman Empire, in its final stages of a 500 year decay from the heights of 1453 and the fall of Constantinople.

Resisting the drive towards Italian unification as always was the Papacy, governed by Pope Pius IX. While its power, strongest in the Middle Ages, over states and rulers had faded, the Papacy still held its traditional swath of territory, known as the Marches of St. Peter, in central Italy.

Finally, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany clung to its independence, seeing its two principle cities, Florence and Pisa, as bastions of the Renaissance in a modernizing world.

A series of popular revolutions in Sicily in 1860 brought the revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi to power at the head of a group known as the Red Shirts. A member of Mazzini's Young Italy movement, Garibaldi turned over his conquests to Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II in the name of a united Italy. Thus was Italy as a modern unified nation created.

The Italian state, crafted by Cavour, was largely formed by 1861, although the acquisition of Venice and Rome, protected by Austrian and French garrisons respectively, was not finished until 1871, ten years after Cavour's early death at age 51. A unified Italy would become a Great Power in the late 19th century, and a monument to Cavour's pragmatism and Garibaldi's patriotism.


Spring, 1859 AD.


SECOND FRENCH EMPIRE: Avignon (A), Marseille (F), Corsica (F), Provence, Languedoc

KINGDOM OF PIEDMONT-SARDINIA: Genoa (F), Turin (A), Sardinia (F), Magenta, Nice, Savoy, Montferrat

HAPSBURG AUSTRIAN EMPIRE: Hungary (A), Trieste (F), Dalmatia (G), Austria, Carinthia, Slavonia, Istria, Croatia, Carniola

DUCHY OF LOMBARDY: Milan (A), Bergamo (A), Como, Solferino.

IMPERIAL PROVINCES OF VENETIA: Padua (A), Treviso (A), Venice (F), Verona, Vicenza, Friuli

DUCHY OF PARMA: Parma (A), Fornova (A), Piancenza, Pontremoli, Cremona

DUCHY OF MODENA: Modena (A), Mantua (A), Arcole, Brescia

GRAND DUCHY OF TUSCANY: Florence (A), Sienna (A), Pisa (F), Piombino, Pistoia

PAPAL STATES: Bologna (A), Ancona (F), Perugia (A), Romanga, Urbino, Rome, Patrimony, Tivoli, Spoleto.

KINGDOM OF THE TWO SICILIES: Palermo (F), Naples (A), Bari (F), Capua, Aquila, Salerno, Otranto, Messina

OTTOMAN EMPIRE: Durazzo (F), Albania (A), Ragusa, Herzegovina, Bosnia

AUTONOMOUS GARRISONS: Place in Swiss, Tyrolea, Salzburg, Trent, Pavia, Saluzzo, Lucca, Ferrara, Arezzo, Monte Cassino, and Tunis.


a) The fortresses are used in this scenario.

b) France and Austria each have two variable income die rolls.

c) All the remaining powers have one variable income die roll.

d) The player who controls Rome gets a roll on the Rome table.

e) All units are considered to be Citizens Militia. All units are double bribe, regardless of their strength. There is no cost to maintain or build units with this feature. It is taken as given.

Notes- By the mid 19th century, the traditional professional mercenary army had been replaced by more modern mass armies, raised from the citizenry. While defections could happen, particularly in a volatile environment such as Italy, they were rare in this time period. Consequently it is very expensive, but not impossible, to do a traditional Machiavelli "buy-out".

f) The restriction of being allowed only one "super unit" is lifted. Players may raise any number of Elite Mercenaries or Elite Professionals that they desire.

g) Moneylenders are available in this scenario. A maximum of 25 ducats (plus interest) may be borrowed at a given time. As always, deficit financing is available.

h) The restrictions on limits of assassination die sides purchased are lifted. Players may spend unlimited amounts.

i) Spies: This new feature allows players, for the cost of 2 ducats, to examine another player's finances. The spied-upon player's current treasury, current credit rating, status of debts, and the previous turn's expenditures (including informal loans) will be revealed. Current turn expenditures will not be revealed.

j) Revolutions:

Notes- This was a chaotic time in Italy's history. Since the French Revolution and Napoleon's conquest of Italy, which left a legacy of administrative unity, revolutionary movements like Mazzini's Young Italy tried to unite the country under nationalist republican programs. Uprisings were frequent, particularly against the corrupt Bourbon administration of Naples, the oppressive Austrian imperial government, and the stubborn clerical regime in Rome.

To reflect this, a third "Natural Disaster" will be created, occurring after the Summer Campaign ends. (Fall Turns were too boring anyway...) A roll will be made on the following table:

2 Column and Row
3-4 Column
5-9 No Revolutions
10-11 Row
12 Column and Row

Then go to the appropriate column and/or row on the accompanying chart. Standard Rebellion Symbols are placed in the respective provinces. All standard Rebellion rules apply.

Click HERE for the Revolutions Table.


Click HERE for a map of "Cavour and Garibaldi" scenario.


a) All cities are now fortified, and are therefore Garrisonable.

b) Tunis is no longer a major city.

c) The following provinces now have cities in them: Parma, Fornova, Brescia, Bergamo.

d) The following provinces now have fortresses in them: Friuli, Carinthia, Slavonia, Istria, Capua.

e) Provence has been subdivided into Nice and Provence. Nice contains a fortified city.

f) Como has been subdivided into Magenta and Como.

g) Tyrolea has been subdivided into Salzburg and Tyrolea. Both have fortified cities.

h) Milan has been subdivided into Solferino and Milan. Milan still has the "major city", worth three.

i) Mantua has been subdivided into Arcole and Mantua. Mantua still contains the city, while Arcole has a fortress.

j) Avignon has been subdivided into Languedoc and Avignon. Avignon still contains the city.

k) Croatia has been subdivided into Trieste and Croatia. Trieste has a fortified port city. Croatia has only a fortress.

l) Capua has been subdivided into Monte Cassino and Capua. Monte Cassino has a fortified city. Capua has only a fortress.


Die Roll 1 2 3 4 5 6

Second French Empire (2 rolls) 1 2 2 2 3 4

Hapsburg Austrian Empire (2 rolls) 1 2 2 2 3 3

Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia 2 2 3 4 5 6

Duchy of Lombardy 2 2 3 3 4 5

Duchy of Parma 2 2 3 3 4 5

Duchy of Modena 2 2 3 3 4 5

Imperial Provinces of Venetia 2 3 3 4 5 6

Grand Duchy of Tuscany 2 3 3 4 5 5

Papal States 2 2 3 3 4 4
(Rome) 1 2 2 3 3 4

Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 2 2 3 3 4 4

Ottoman Empire 1 2 2 3 3 4


Because there are a number of powers that are weak, for purposes of the matrix, points based on finish will be slightly modified.
There are three groups of powers:

Modena, Parma, Lombardy, and Venetia.

Piedmont-Sardinia, Ottoman Empire, Papal States, Tuscany, and the Two Sicilies.

France and Austria

Group B is the base line group. All placings for this group receive the regular number of matrix points. Group A points are multiplied by 1.5 because of the weakness of these powers. Group C points are divided by 1.5 because these powers are easier to win with.

(Example: The French player finishes second, receiving 9 points normally. This is reduced to 6 (9/1.5).
The Venetian player finishes 10th, receiving 2 points. This is bumped up to 3 points (2*1.5).)

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