M31, M32, and M110
the Andromeda Galaxy and satellite galaxies

M31_071099_43x_400p.jpg (24905 bytes)

2.4'' refractor  28 x

Appears as a large oval smudge even at a very low 28 x magnification.

North at 8 o'clock, East at 11 o'clock.

10.1'' reflector  43 x

Spectacular at low power in an RFT. With direct viewing the Andromeda galaxy appears to extend 30' to 45' across, while averted vision shows it to extend well over a degree; the full (true) extent of M31 is about three degrees, or three fields of view. The central portion is very bright, almost stellar at the centre. The disk is slightly flattened on the NW (bottom) side, suggesting evidence of the dark foreground dustlane that shows up in photos.

M32 is a tightly bound bright ball of stars above and to the left of M31. It appears to be about 3-4' across.

M110 to the lower right is slightly fainter but much bigger than M32.   M110 appears to resolve into a few stars although these are likely foreground stars within our own galaxy; it's shape is oblong towards M31, about 8' to 10' across.

North at 3 o'clock, East at 12 o'clock.

80mm refractor    Mallincam DS432cTEC
Live-stacked frames = 10-5-15 (30 total), Exposures = 15-30-45 sec, Gain = 7/250

In this exposure taken with the Orion 80mm refractor, two distinct dark dust lanes can be seen in front of the core. Dark "puffy" clouds can also be seen on the left and right sides of the disk. M32 is the bright fuzzy object above and to the left of the core, M110 is directly below. Image dimensions are approximately 1 degree by 1.5 degrees.

North at 4 o'clock, East at 1 o'clock.

10.1" reflector    Mallincam DS432cTEC with 0.5 focal reducer
Live-stacked frames = 10-10-10-20 (50 total), Exposures = 10-15-20-25 sec, Gain = 10/250

This close-up view of M31, with M32 above, shows finer details in the dark dust lanes in front of and around the core. The resolving power of the 10.1" Dob over the 80mm refractor (previous image) is evident.

North at 5 o'clock, East at 2 o'clock.

10.1" reflector    Mallincam DS432cTEC with 0.5 focal reducer
Live-stacked frames = 5, Exposure = 25 sec, Gain = 10/250

In this slightly over-exposed view we can see additional details in the dark clouds and nebula further away from the core.

North at 5 o'clock, East at 2 o'clock.